Facebook is a site of social networks created by Mark Zuckerberg founded by Eduardo Saverin , Chris Hughes , Dustin Moskovitz and Mark Zuckerberg . Originally a site for students of the University of Harvard , but now is open to anyone with an account of e-mail . Users can participate in one or more social networks in relation to their academic status, place of work or geographical region.
Has received much attention in the blogosphere and the media to become a platform on which third parties can develop applications and do business from the network.
In mid- 2007 launched versions in French, German and Spanish to promote its expansion outside the United States , as their users are concentrated in the U.S., Canada and United Kingdom . In July 2010 , Facebook has 500 million members, and translations into 70 languages . 4 In November 2011 , reaches 800 million users. 5
Its main infrastructure consists of a network of over 50 000 servers using distributions of the operating system GNU / Linux using LAMP . 6
The creator of Facebook is Mark Zuckerberg , a student at Harvard University . The company is headquartered in Palo Alto , California .
The idea of creating a community based website where people share their tastes and feelings is not new, as David Bohnett, founder of Geocities , had hatched in the late 1980′s . Facebook competes for open space between successful companies like Google and MySpace , so it faces major challenges to grow and develop. One of the strategies Zuckerberg has been open platform Facebook to other developers.
The strength of the social network Facebook is in the 800 million users has reached 4 connections based on real people.
Between 2007 and 2008 launched Facebook in Spanish, extending to the countries of Latin America. Almost anyone with basic computer skills can access this world of virtual communities.
Facebook began allowing students agregasen university students, whose schools were not included on the site, due to requests from users. In March 2006 , BusinessWeek reported that a potential acquisition of the site was under negotiation. Facebook declined an offer of $ 750 million. [ citation needed ]
In May 2006, the Facebook network was successfully extended in India, with support from institutes of technology in that country.
In June 2006, there was an agreement with iTunes Store and iTunes know the musical tastes of the users and thus provide a download link on your own site.
In August 2006, Facebook added universities in Germany and Israel to your network. He also introduced the importation of blogs Xanga, LiveJournal or Blogger .
Since September 2006 Facebook was opened to all Internet users, despite protests from many of its users [ citation needed ] and would lose the basis upon which student had been maintained.
In July 2007 , Facebook announced its first acquisition, Parakey, Inc. from Blake Ross and Joe Hewitt. In August of that year gave him the cover of the magazine Newsweek , in addition to integration with YouTube .
In late October 2007, Facebook sold a portion, 1.6%, to Microsoft in exchange for $ 240 million, [ citation needed ] with the proviso that Facebook is becoming a business model for brands where offered their products and services, as user data and profile it. The acquisition valued Facebook at fifteen thousand million dollars, although the consensus of analysts was that this figure exceeded the actual value of the company – to Microsoft was not just a financial investment but also a strategic move on the Internet.
The latest capital injection Facebook -27.5 million dollars, was led by Greylock Venture Capital ( investment fund with strong ties to the CIA). One of the partners of Greylock is Howard Cox, according to the newspaper The Guardian – belongs to the investment fund in venture capital from the CIA. 7
In July 2009 , Mark Zuckerberg , founder of the company was announced that Facebook had reached 250 million users. 8 On September 15th of that year announced that it exceeded 300 million in September and December 2 already had more 350 million. October 11 currently has over 800 million users, as confirmed at the f8 Developer Conference, held on September 22, 2011. 4
Friends List: Here the user can add to anyone who knows and is registered, provided that accepts your invitation. 12 In Facebook you can locate friends with whom contact was lost or add new ones with whom to exchange photos or messages. For this, the Facebook server has search tools and a suggestion of friends.
Groups and pages: One of the most recent development utilities. It is bringing together people with common interests. In groups you can add photos, videos, messages, etc.. The pages are created for specific purposes and unlike the groups do not contain discussion forums, as they are directed towards specific brands or characters and not to any call.
In addition, groups also have their rules, among which includes the prohibition of discriminatory or thematic groups that incite hatred and disrespect and personal honor. While this is not true in many cases, the option to report and report groups that go against this rule, which Facebook has a link in each group which is headed for a box of claims and complaints.
Wall: the wall ( wall in English ) is a space on each user profile that allows friends to write messages for the user to see. It is only visible to registered members. Enters images and logos to put any in your publication. Improved call supermuro to embed flash animations, etc.
Photos: According to Facebook, 13 is:
5 billion photos user.
160 terabytes of storage.
Gifts: gifts or gifts are small icons with a message. Gifts given to a user appear on the wall with the message of the donor unless the donor decides to give the gift privately, in which case the name of the donor and the message is not displayed to other users.
An option “anonymous” is also available, which anyone with profile access can see the gift, but only the recipient sees the message.
Some gifts are free and the rest cost a dollar, (you need a number of credit card account or Paypal ).
Applications: These are small applications that you can find your fortune cookie, who is your best friend, discover things about your personality …
Games: Most applications found on Facebook relate to role play, games similar to Trivial Pursuit (eg. geography ), or evidence of skills (typing, memory). Among the most famous games are Playfish , Pet Society as, games Zynga Games as FarmVille 14 and Cityville also games Digital Chocolate as Tower Bloxx .
Facebook currently in numbers
Facebook has over 500 million registered users around the world. 15 According to Alexa.com , the site went from No. 60 of the most visited at number 7 in a year. Currently on a 2. 16 Quantcast puts it at number 16, 17 and Compete.com at 20. 18 page is the most popular for uploading photos, with statistics from more than 83 million photos uploaded daily . On November 3 of 2007 , there were seven thousand (7000) applications on the site, one hundred added each day, 19 and in January 2010 exceeded 500,000.
The ten countries with most Facebook users
The ten countries with more Spanish speaking users on Facebook
After his translation to languages other than English, Facebook has grown not only users, but has transformed the way people use the Internet . In Chile , for example, there have been studies that state-supported universities that 73% of young Chileans between 18 and 29 are Facebook users. 20
In Venezuela as a test conducted by the University of Carabobo 60% of those between 13 and 21 are active Facebook users. 21
The influence of this web site has reached such a point that is considered among the media as a social revolution, especially among the youth of the late in 2000 for his innovative way of communicating via the Web .
The film The Social Network , directed by David Fincher , was released on 1 October 2010, based on the book Billionaires by accident , of Ben Mezrich (Editorial Encourages: 2010, ISBN 978-84-92414-20-8 ), tells the birth of Facebook. 22 However, its creator is not happy because he says that does not conform to reality. 23
Regarding questions about the protection of minors in social networks, Facebook has added to its platform a panic button. This button is only an application for children and adolescents have rapid access to a tool that allows them to contact authorities if they detect a hint of abuse online. By the time the application is only available in the United Kingdom . The Centre for British Children Online Protection (CEOP, for its acronym in English) negotiated for months to incorporate this prevention system on Facebook, having already reached similar agreements with other services like MySpace and Bebo .
Facebook in other languages
The base language is English Facebook U.S. that puts the Facebook team. The other languages they translate users and users 24 as volunteers and non-profit through an application out there for it. The application is called Translation and this is the website: http://www.facebook.com/apps/application.php?id=4329892722 Facebook in Spanish was the first language other than English and the translation process was completed in February , 2008. Collaborated to translate over 1500 users in less than 1 month.
Facebook has received a number of reviews since reaching global dissemination. Especially by its terms, in terms of data and image, and access to user information once discharged. Also due to the extent it is having underage, its psychological effects and its alarming privacy policies. 25
At the time of accept the terms of community use, the user assigns exclusive and perpetual property of all information and images that add to the social network. 26
“You grant Facebook an irrevocable, perpetual, nonexclusive, transferable and worldwide (with the authorization to agree on a secondary license) to use, copy, publish, disseminate, store, perform, transmit, scan, modify, edit, translate , adapt, redistribute any content posted on the site. ”
In sum, these license terms offered to Facebook commercial property all you have to do with the privacy of each network member. Although CEO Mark Zuckerberg said, to reassure users that “never use this information outside the Facebook service,” social network gets right to use this information as desired. 27 On April 21 of 2010 was reported that Facebook plans to make visible the pages viewed by Internet users, which has raised controversy due to loss of privacy. “We went from a situation where we did not have sufficient control to another where Facebook becomes public whole categories of information in business logic” according to Kurt Opsahl, an attorney for Electronic Frontier Foundation dedicated to the defense of the Internet. 28
If you want to cancel an account, the process is very long, because Facebook keeps active “if you choose to reactivate your account” and so it keeps copies of that information indefinitely. And in case of death of the user, your account is kept “active under a special memorial status for a period determined by us to allow other users to post and view comments.” 29
In the case of Nippon Das, director of a biotechnology consulting in the U.S., managed to eliminate most of the profile information when contacted by mail with representatives of customer service, threatening to take legal action. Although still a reporter afterward found full profile Das. 29
There is also a link that is definitely possible, removal of the profile and all your information within 15 days. 30
Since public institutions, 31 colleges to 32 blogs through 33 and other websites linked to social networks have criticized various aspects of Facebook. [ which? ] Perhaps the most dramatic expansion of Facebook is changing the habits of mind. 34
In 2011, the project Europe was created against Facebook, started by an Austrian Max Schrems, which requested information from your Facebook profile, in response, the network delivered a package with just over 1200 files in PDF , which motivated the creation of the website, in protest. 35
Among those detacadas warning about the use, is the U.S. president inaugurated the new school year in a secondary school in Wakefield, Virginia. They urged the students in your country to:
“Be careful what you upload to Facebook.” 36
Facebook is a social network service launched in February 2004 , managed and owned by Facebook, Inc.  The site, founded at Cambridge by Mark Zuckerberg and his college friends Eduardo Saverin , Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes , was originally designed exclusively for students of ‘ Harvard University . But he was soon made accessible to students of other schools in the area of Boston , the Ivy League and Stanford University . Subsequently it was also open to high school students and then to anyone over 13 years. Since then, Facebook reached an enormous success, became the second most visited site in the world, preceded only by Google ,  is available in over 70 languages and has more than 850 million active users who log at least once a month. Among these, the second ConsumersReports.org, 7.5 million are under 13 years, and therefore violate the terms of service of the site. On 1 February 2012 Facebook submit to SEC documents for the ‘ public offering , and the subsequent IPO planned for the month of May 2012 . 
To use this site, you must first register. To register you must provide certain information: name, surname, date of birth and email address . The website makes it clear that the mandatory inclusion of date of birth is used exclusively ” to foster a greater authenticity and allow access to different content based on age . ” Once registered, you can proceed to create their own profile. You can also add other users among their friends, participate in groups according to their interests, exchange e-mail or via a chat , share pictures and other video content and use different applications on the site. 
To customize your profile you can upload an image, called a profile picture, with which it may be recognizable. It can also provide additional information such as city of birth and residence, the school attended or your employer, religious and political orientation, their emotional situation and many others.
Mark Zuckerberg , co-founder of Facebook
Facebook was founded on 4 February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg nineteen then a student at the ‘ Harvard University , with help from Andrew McCollum and Eduardo Saverin . By the end of the month, more than half the student population at Harvard was registered to the service. At that time, Zuckerberg was helped by Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes for site promotion and Facebook expanded all ‘ Stanford University , at Columbia University and at ‘ Yale University . This expansion continued in April 2004 when it extended to the rest of the Ivy League , at MIT , the Boston University and Boston College . At the end of the academic year, Zuckerberg and Moskovitz moved to Palo Alto in California with McCollum, who had followed a summer internship at Electronic Arts . They rented a house near the University of Stanford where they were joined by Adam D’Angelo and Sean Parker .
The current domain, facebook.com, was recorded only later, between April and August 2005,  and many individual universities were added in rapid succession in the following year. Over time, people with an email address with the university domain (for esempio.edu. Ac.uk and other) institutions around the world acquired the requirements to participate. So on 27 February 2006 Facebook is extended to high schools and corporations.
From ‘ 11 September 2006 , anyone over 13 can participate. Users can do one or more participating networks, such as high school, the workplace or geographical region. If the initial purpose of Facebook was to maintain contact between students from universities and high schools around the world, with the passage of time has turned into a social network that spans across all users of the Internet .
From September 2006 to September 2007 the position in the ranking of the sites traffic has passed the second Alexa from the sixtieth to the seventh position. From the July 2007 figure in the top 10 most visited websites in the world and is the site number one in the U.S. for viewable photos, with more than 60 million photos uploaded weekly.
In 2007 Microsoft buys a share of 1, 6% for 240 million U.S. dollars  and a group of Russian investors buy the 2% to $ 200 million. The value of the site was estimated by Microsoft at the time the $ 15 billion  , but later contradicted and corrected in 3.7 billion U.S. dollars in 2009  .
In Italy there was a boom in 2008 : in the month of August there were over one million three hundred thousand visits, with an annual increase of 961%,  the third quarter also saw Italy heads the list of countries with the largest increase in the number of users (+135%)  . According to data provided by Facebook and Facebook gathered in the Observatory,  Italian users in the month of November 2011 are 21,000,000, of which 13 million are connected every day. Those who log on monthly by the mobile device is 7.5 million.
In early 2010 the company was valued at 14 billion U.S. dollars .  In mid 2010 the company was valued at 25 billion U.S. dollars , then come to an estimated 41 billion U.S. dollars in November 2010 , estimated of SecondMarket . On the 3rd January 2011, Goldman Sachs invests $ 450 million in Facebook at a staggering reevaluate making 50 billion U.S. dollars .
In 2010 the site has surpassed the United States for a week, as numbers of hits, search engine Google . 
In 2011 the company introduced many features inspired by his new rival Google + (in response to Google’s social network), including for example:
The automatic language translation of the posts on the bulletin board;
The possibility of sharing application for mobile devices;
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The site is free to users and derives revenue from advertising , including banner . Many analysts argue instead that the monetary income of Facebook are not as high compared to the potential of a social network service , averaging about $ 230 million in 2009. In fact only in 2009, after 5 years from its inception, the portal is able to close the first budget surplus. Revenues from advertising sales fail to cover only part of the fixed costs of running the site (storage, servers, etc..) So as to require the contribution of members (including the 1, 6% of Microsoft). [ 13]
Users create profiles that often contain photos and lists of personal interests, exchange private messages or public and are part of groups of friends. The vision of the detailed data of the profile is restricted to users at your friends or accepted by the user. According to TechCrunch , “about 85% of college students have a profile on the site. Of those who enrolled, 60% accessed the site daily. About 85% at least once a week, and 93% at least once a month. ” According to Chris Hughes, spokesman for Facebook, “People spend about 19 minutes a day on Facebook”.  The members of Facebook can choose to join one or more networks, organized by city, workplace, school and religion . Facebook is similar to MySpace , but a significant difference between the two platforms is the level of personal customization of the page. While MySpace allows users to decorate the profiles using the ‘ HTML and CSS , on Facebook you can only enter text.
Since 2007 is available on the Facebook Marketplace , which allows users to place ads that are visible only by users on the same network.
Facebook includes some services that are available on the mobile device, such as the ability to upload content, receive and reply to messages, send and receive poke , write on the bulletin board users or just the ability to browse the network .
Another feature of the Facebook profile is the “mini-feed” shows that their actions and those of friends, in a public timeline not unlike that of Twitter . The difference is that with Twitter updates you decide what will be shared directly, while with the Facebook newsfeed every action is monitored and transmitted. However, only users added to your list of friends will be aware of such information.
Facebook makes use of AJAX in your web pages.
In addition to the natural social service network, many applications have been developed, which allowed for rapid dissemination of simple games online free, coming to involve millions of users worldwide. These include FarmVille , developed by Californian software house Zynga , which reached 11 million active users (not casual) daily,  always Zynga, Mafia Wars has reached 5 million users,  while Pet Society , developed by Playfish , has been ranked as the most popular Facebook application in April 2009   . From December 2010 are two new games produced by Square Enix : Knights of the Crystals and Chocobo’s Crystal Tower  . Other games are Facebook Empire & Allies, CastleVille, CityVille and recently has been introduced to the game The Sims Social .
Beacon was a part of the publicity of Facebook that was sending data to sites outside of Facebook, ostensibly to enable targeted advertisements and allow users to share activities with their friends. Some activities on the partner sites were published on the News Feed user. Beacon was launched on 6 November 2007 with 44 partner sites. The service, a rather controversial, became the object of a class action and was suspended in September 2009. 
Facebook Markup Language
FBML is a pseudo-language, HTML style, which lets you place content into the Facebook applications such as buttons, forms, multimedia, and much more. The language FBML is then parsed by the same Facebook that “translates” his special tags in HTML and styles needed. 
Privacy and disputes
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Several problems  have arisen regarding the use of Facebook as a means of control and as a mine of data.
Initially there was no granular control of who-can-see-what. From 31 May 2010 you can apply privacy settings to the individual post or individual comments  . She was also extended the list of “levels”, adding a custom level. The levels are:
I (only for photos)
Friends of friends
Friends and Networks
These levels can be set independently for each “category” of profile information on data elements (comments, posts, etc..) Or on personal data (such as “Birthday”, “Political and religious”, “Education and Work “, etc..).  
By operating on the profile settings so you can limit the spread of personal data. In particular in the menu settings is available the entry on privacy settings , from which you can act on the categories of data including: profile, search, news and bulletin board. Of course, these settings do not restrict access to those data where site managers assign administrative privileges, for reasons of order and legal.
Initially, Facebook only allowed to disable the account so that was no longer visible on the site and in search engines. As of 28 February 2008 the user also has an option available that permanently delete their data from the server site.
However you think of pictures and videos taken on the bulletin board of other users, or photos posted by third parties in which a user is tagged, the edge behind his consent. Once tagged in a photo, not just a text or video images were copied to the profile of other users, this material can not be eliminated (unless required), even when the person decides to delete his profile. The cancellation is limited to the personal profile, but not everything was copied from a third party or shared with others.
Furthermore, the content posted by members (such as photographs, video and comments) are the property of the site . Rare case in law, the site says the owner, but not responsible for the content, and, like many other content providers , refuses to censor or limit the visibility of content and groups, rejects the criticism concerning defamatory, which incite to crime penalties, and demands for damages that can be moved in such circumstances.
According to the Italian code of personal data protection, ownership of the content does not extinguish the individual rights of those concerned. If these are the authors of content, transfer of title to the site at the time of publication, again, extinguished the rights relating to copyright, not subjective ones. You have the right to obtain information about the processing of personal data of third parties that have entered into possession, to prohibit the publication, and to finalize its removal from the site, you must destroy all copies of personal data in its possession, and disclose the cancellation request to third parties who have acquired these data through it. 
The international attention and criticism of various actors, both national organizations that have led to a May 2010 review of the management of privacy that slightly increases the granularity but with certainty the accuracy and clarity with which the user with the use and vision of a single grid will access the setting of the various aspects of the privacy of your profile. [ unclear ] 
Two students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology managed to download over 70,000 Facebook profiles using a shell script automatically. In May of 2008 a program of the BBC , Click , showed that it was possible to steal the personal information of a user and his friends with malicious applications. 
Facebook is also subject to the phenomenon of creating fake profiles of famous people.  
Numerous cases in Italy of a breach of privacy for publishing photos of “inconvenient”. On May 14, 2009 are discovered photos of patients intubated visible on the site, and the nurse who had published had not noticed that they were within reach of all. 
At the end of October 2009 on Facebook, appeared injuries and insults by a panel discussion titled “Kill Berlusconi”. Following the media emphasized the minister Maroni has promised to denounce those who spoke and prosecution.  
On the site you’ve created several groups who have previously chanted to Salvatore Riina and the massacre of Srebrenica .  
In May 2010 the Pakistan and Bangladesh have decided the blackout of Facebook and Youtube to prevent the spread of caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad . 
In September 2010, on Facebook, after a study carried out in laboratory safety AVG Technologies , were found about 11,000 infected pages that endanger users, mostly exposed to identity theft. 
Recently, Facebook has opted in facial recognition of picture contributed by users, causing some controversy for privacy. 
Analysis of the social dynamics of Facebook
In an article posted on his personal blog, Facebook hired by the sociologist, Cameron Marlow ,  has made public the details of a study  conducted by the Facebook Data Team on the social dynamics of subscribers. The purpose of this study was to determine if Facebook increases the size of an individual’s personal network.  To answer this question, the study has created a qualitative distinction of Facebook friends into three subgroups internal to a larger group.
The group generally refers to “all friends”,  or to the list of people that a Facebook user as such. According to Marlow, the word “friends” in this context seems somewhat ‘ambiguous. The curiosity of users who ask him to assess whether they have enough friends on Facebook or if they have a few, the sociologist says that the language used might lead to committing an error. Those who, in the language in use are considered as friends, might be simply an individual who has met at some point in his life. Regarding the number of the social network, Facebook’s official data  reproduced by Marlow speak of 120 friends for the average user. The same, however, Marlow says that this figure may be significant to estimate the size of a person’s social network. First, because the site is still young enough and the number of subscribers is still relatively low. This means that not all people known to be a registered user on Facebook can be recorded at this site and would undermine the ability of the individual to build his social network that matches that could build by other means. In this regard, Marlow cites another tool for estimating the size of an individual’s social network: was quoted by the writer Malcolm Gladwell in his book The Tipping Point and refers to the studies of Peter Killworth and his collaborators. [ 43] These researchers used a list of names and surnames taken from a telephone directory and estimated the size of an individual’s social network on its ability to recognize the names on the list as people encountered. This method led to an estimate of the social network developed during the life ranging from 300 to 3000 people.
The data for the three subgroups were processed for 30 days by monitoring the activity of a random sample of users.  monitored the activities relate to the types of communication that Facebook provides users to keep in touch with members of his personal social network.
The first subgroup refers to reports maintained in a passive manner with the use of tools like the News Feed or RSS readers. Search within these technological tools in the management of the report because, according to Marlow, the consumption of content accessible by these means can be transformed into other forms of communication.  For example, if the former high school classmate of public Facebook a photo of her new puppy, you can click on the news, check out many more photos and find out among other things that is engaged, or had a child, and this could lead to contact with her. In measuring the size of this subgroup, the researchers were limited to record the number of friends a user has visited with some repetition, more than twice during the thirty days of searching, clicking on the News Feed or display the profile .
The second subgroup is built around the use of technologies of communication “one way” (one-way communication) as are the comments to photos, status messages or post on the wall of a friend.
The third subgroup is built around the use of technologies based on mutual communication , or an active exchange of information between two people chatting or exchanging messages via email.
The general trend of users,   considered the sexual distinction, shows that people on Facebook using the various forms of communication expressing a commitment differently depending on the type of technology. Compared to their buddy list, users are kept informed (or clicking on the News Feed on RSS, or by visiting the profile) with a less conspicuous number of friends. The number drops even further when it comes to using technology to “one way” (comments on photos or status messages, or post on the wall), to be further reduced with the use of two-way communication (chat and exchange e- mail).
The data based on the kind of sex show the user a different propensity of the two sexes    in the use of these technologies: the women were generally more active than men in their use.
When users, male and female, have a list of 500 friends, women on average will keep each other informed via RSS News Feed and profile views of 47 members of their social network, men, on the other hand, use this technology to keep you on average of 39 of their 500 friends on Facebook. The women use communication to “one way” with an average of 26 of their friends, with 17 men. The mutual use of technology (chat and exchange messages via e-mail) is even more limited: compared to 500 women s’intrattengono friends through this type of communication with 16 friends, with 10 men.
Users with a list of 150 friends build around themselves a subset of relationships through Facebook and women is on average 22 out of 150 for relations maintained, 19 for men, women send communications to “one way” 11 to 150 of their friends, the men at 7, 7 out of 150 are on average mutual communications with friends for women, 5 for men.